Acting Action Anamorphic Cinematography
Angle of View Animascope Animation Camera
Anticipation Arc Shot Audition
Back-up Schedule Blocking Blooper
Breakdown Buildup Business
Cameo Camera Prompting System Camera Report
Casting Couch Change Pages Cheat
Choreography Cinemicrography Cinerama
Clean Speech Commentary Composition
Conflict Consulting/Advising Continuity
Crowd Shot Cue Cutaway
Deadpan Diorama Distance
Directing Directions Dress Off
Dope Sheet Double Take Electronic Storyboard
Drift Dry Run External Rhythm
Establishing Shot Exposition Fifty-Fifty
Eye Contact Favoring Gag
Flashback Flashforward Hand Cue
Grease Paint Guiding Shot In Camera
Hit the Mark Improvise Line
Kill Live-Action Macguffin
Mise-en-scene Method Acting Narration
New Angle Obligatory Scene Off camera
Out of Character Pace Parallel Action
Passing Shot Photogenic Pickups
Point of View Polish Prompter
Reaction Shot Read-through Reestablishing Shot
Retake Screen Test Run-Through
Scrub Selsyn Motor Screenplay
Set Shoot Shooting Call
Shooting Schedule Shooting Script Space
Stay With the Money Story-board Subjective Camera
Tag Text Three-Camera Technique
Timing Typecasting Upstage
Vignette    















Acting:
When a person pretends to be a character in a screenplay, theatrical production or film and interprets the role as they best see fit they are said to be acting. Within the process of film acting a person's inabilities may be masked by the editing process so that the effective communication to the audience is not direct as in stage or theatrical acting.

Action :
Action is any movement that takes place before the camera including, but not limited to, the exchange between actors and actresses in the course of a developing narrative and the settings in which the characters they are portraying find themselves.

Anamorphic Cinematography :
The Greek term "morphic" denotes form or shape. "Ana," in this case, implies "new." An anamorphic lens "shapes anew" a particular image. Both the camera and projector must use the anamorphic lens because when the image is photographed the horizontal axis "alone" of the image is condensed so that the scene can pass through the lens and make its image on the comparatively narrow width of the film. (Outside of the industry an anamorphic lens affects both the horizontal and vertical image.) The projector, accordingly, expands the horizontal axis so that when it is depicted on the screen the normal image appears.

 
Angle of View :
This term primarily refers to the horizontal axis of a particular image. When an image is photographed the opening of the camera lens is circular in actuality. However, the aperture is structured in such a way as to provide a rectangular frame that structures the image for viewing and later projection. The horizontal axis is dependent upon the angle of the lens. Wide angles provide an overview of approximately forty three degrees while a `normal' angled lens provides an "angle of view" that approximates twenty five degrees.

 
Animascope:
This procedure was developed in the United States to facilitate animation. Actors are photographed in a manner that enhances their silhouette and diminishes their specific characteristics. They are photographed against a black background and later these images are combined with painted matte backgrounds.

Animation Camera:
Animation cameras were specifically designed for photographing frame-by-frame through stop-action lenses thus allowing the camera to capture fractions of movements. The camera is mounted on animation stands so that the media being filmed can be framed in a consistent and sequential manner.

Anticipation :
An effectual device used to emphasize a particular thing that is about to happen. This is often accomplished with a pause in the actions of a character. An example from animation would include the momentary halt in "Wiley Coyote's" pursuit of the "Roadrunner" when one of his "captivating" devices has been foiled again. He waits, is depicted as looking at the audience with a knowing and pained expression on his face, and then the anvil falls upon his head.

Arc Shot:
A simple photographic procedure in which the subject being photographed is circled by the camera.

Audition:
The basic "tryout" or test for a specific role in the stage and film genres. Musical scores and songs are also often "auditioned" for both theatrical productions and film productions.

Back-up Schedule:
If problematic events interrupt the primary filming schedule -- such as rain on location when not called for in the script -- the back-up schedule is followed instead.

Blocking:
In the process of setting-up a scene, a rehearsal takes place in very general terms so that the production crew and the artistic individuals such as the directors, camerapersons, actresses and actors, can effectively construct the scene for filming. A brief composite of the display occurs during blocking.

Blooper:
A mistake made by a performer during filming. Bloopers specifically refer to misplaced or misspoken dialogue by the individual usually resulting in an humorous or embarrassing situation.

Breakdown:
In the production of films a scenario of the entirety must be worked out in advance of production. A breakdown or breakdown script is a proverbial laundry list of everything needed for the production of the particular film and what is needed for each scene on a day-by-day basis. One of the problems that is alleviated when the breakdown is thorough and precise is continuity. If a scene is filmed from one day to the next the breakdown list provides the information as to what was used in the previous days' shooting. Inclusive in the breakdown are props, lights, extras, cameras, positions and sound settings.

Buildup:
Action increases, the pace and intensity of the film narrative drive forth, and the music crescendos. . .this lead-in or buildup culminates with a dramatically central scene in the scope and content of the story line.

 
Business:
This term is applied to any movement or gesture by an actress or actor in the process of adding character to a role and fulfilling their interpretation. "Giving them the business" is a Hollywood colloquialism that refers to such devices, when the intent is to convey the attitude of a character and deceive the person to whom the `business' (gesture, interpretation, characterization) is directed; fooling someone with a false appearance. Also the secondary or background action in any given scene.

Cameo:
When a star is not billed in a film but makes a special appearance at the request of the producer or director for a brief moment or comment. Prime examples include Alfred Hitchcock's "cameo" appearances in some of his films most often at the beginning (man on the street appearances). It was an interesting device often used to increase box-office potentials. Bing Crosby made a brief and unexpected appearance in a movie starring Bob Hope (perhaps to catch the audiences familiar with their road movies). A particularly "Brooksian" cameo occurred when Marcel Marceau appeared in Mel Brooks' "Silent Movie" delivering the only spoken line throughout the film, "No!"

Camera Prompting System :
A fanciful form of cue cards for performers. The Camera Prompting System is, attached to the camera, structured in the form of a scrolling device, can be run by remote control, and, in respect to the camera lens, is angled at forty five degrees. Performers can read their lines and play to the camera simultaneously.

Camera Report:
This is an itinerary of what the camera has shot, what it is supposed to shoot, how many feet have been taken, what is on a particular exposure taken from a specific camera, the number of takes and general and specific comments as well as selections regarding the day's shoot. The assistant cameraman is responsible for the camera report. (See Assistant Cameraman.)

Casting Couch:
An aspect of the fiction and reality of Hollywood during the so called Golden Age, this piece of furniture was present in a director's or producer's office. Starlets purportedly obtained their roles in motion pictures by granting sexual favors, to the director or producer, enacted on the couch. This, of course, does not imply that only "starlets" received such casting favors.

Change Pages:
Specific editions of aspects of the script come out on a daily basis during the process of shooting a film. As an alteration occurs the changes are made on "pages" of different colors indicating the particular stage of the rewrite.

Cheat:
When directors rearrange the positions of actors and actresses on the set to provide a different angle or a close-up shot a "cheat" occurs. This provides a perspective that could not otherwise be achieved with camera angles and camera movement. Problems can arise, however, if an audience member checks for consistency in positions of performers. That is why great care must be taken when the cheat is implemented.

Choreography:
The organization and sequencing of dance movements and sequences in the content of a film or stage production. Choreography also refers to the art of directing movements of any kind during a physical, performing art. Film, opera, television, and stage productions all include choreography.

Cinemicrography:
This term denotes the photographing of tiny objects. The process is particularly useful as a special effects device in the making of science fiction films or medical films. Microcinematography has been employed in scientific research and includes such fields as photomicography -- the use of an apparatus to attach a camera directly to a microscope for photographing images.

Cinerama:
A wide-screen filming process that first used three cameras and three projectors to achieve an encompassing view of the subject matter. The cameras were positioned conjointly so as to record data in breadth with one camera facing straight ahead and the other two cameras filming in coordinates of camera-right and camera-left. The full angle achieved was one hundred and sixty five degrees and the films were melded-together or combined in such a way as to produce an effectual illusion of spaciousness. The method was employed in the travelogue "This is Cinerama," (1952) to introduce the technique to the viewing public and in the feature presentation "How the West Was Won" (1962).

Clean Speech:
In the process of filming a scene containing dialogue, actors make mistakes in delivering their lines. When this does not occur the faultless dialogue take is referred to as "clean speech".

Commentary:
Taking the perspective of an omniscient poet the commentator does not appear on film. S/he gives an objective opinion or description of characters or events either occurring in the film or to fill in information without wasting a great deal of film time. The commentator's voice comes from off-camera and is edited to the soundtrack of the film through the voice-over process.

Composition:
Composition entails the complete arrangement of a scene. The process includes camera angles, lighting, properties, characters, and the movement of the characters. Various forms of composition are all in the hands of the director. These proceedings not only give the audience the perspective, content and context that they will experience but composition often demonstratively indicates a directorial signature.

Conflict:
In the story-line of a film, performing art or literature, the struggle that arises between two in opposition. The conflicts can arise between a single individual and their self, one individual and another, one person and a group, two groups, or two forces. Several of these conflicts can appear in the content of the same film as in Robert Redford's "Ordinary People."

Consulting/Advising:
In film productions contending with studied issues, biographical events or nonfiction stories based on actual events, people are brought on the set to add clarity, substance and veracity to the story-line. The individuals who are experts in the field being addressed, the biographers of individuals being depicted in the film, or the people who actually experienced the events are credited as consultants or advisers. Their insights into the quality and character of the subject matter, or, their overview of the corpus of the film, is referred to as consulting or advising.

Continuity:
Most film viewers are aware that various scenes in motion pictures are filmed out of sequence. The continuity of a film refers to the sequential development and consistency of the story-line and images. If for example a scene requires numerous takes shot on different days the continuity or integrity of the story (scene) must be maintained. If a performer is wearing a specific piece of apparel in the course of one day's shooting of a scene, and the next day requires close-ups or images and actions from the same scene and the apparel changes, the continuity of the scene has been corrupted.

Crowd Shot:
A shot, image, scene or depiction of a large group of people. Extras often constitute the corpus of the "crowd shot".

Cue:
Any sign from the director, script or performance of another character that indicates the next requisite movement, action, or dialogue of an individual performer. Cued individuals may be performers or technicians as the indicated action includes camera positionings, lighting requirements and movements of booms or other production devices.

Cutaway:
"In the meantime," or, "Meanwhile, back at the ranch," are phrases indicative of a cutaway. These shots are often taken in coverage footage and provide a transition or "cut" image for the editor. They can include stock footage as well and are added at the end of a scene to give a momentary pause. The "poetic" pause is used so that in the transition from one scene to the next, there is not a sudden jump (although this technique is used on occasion as well). If, for example, action is taking place in a Western, and the scene switches from the town to the ranch where our heroine is compromised, a "cut" of the ranch is used to go from the town to the heroine. Waves lapping on the beach after a romantic love-scene is often used as a "cut" image providing a transition from the "love scene" to another sequence of events.

 
Deadpan:
A specific type of comedic device in which the performer assumes an expressionless (deadpan) quality to her/his face demonstrating absolutely no emotion or feeling. This was a trademark of Buster Keaton's comedic form.

Diorama:
Production processes include the building of miniature models of the set which is going to be used in a film. The miniature model is referred to as a diorama.

Directing:
Directing is the art of arranging all the action being filmed during the production of a movie and making certain that the action and the spoken word relates to the content and context of the screenplay. With few exceptions, all personnel on a film stage answer to the director. Her/his guidance meld all of the aspects of filmmmaking -- sound, light and action -- into a uniform whole. This process has not changed significantly since the advent of feature films in 1915.

Directions:
The content of a film or dialogue script often contains statements which are set off from the main dialogue by parentheses, dashes, brackets, et cetera. These statements often instruct the performer how to move, react or gesture thus providing her/him with "directions" to accompany the dialogue. "Direction" also refers to the instructions that a director gives to her or his actresses and actors as well as the technicians involved in filming a scene.

Distance:
Distance refers to the amount of relational space between the audience and the character on the screen. Though the characters are two-dimensional and the audience is distinctly separate from the screen by dead space (virtual reality in the theatre has not yet been developed) the camera's perspective, in effect, attempts to provide the amount of space desired subject to the director's discretion. This space often results in the interaction and psychological connection between the characters and the audience. The connection is achieved through the dynamics and varying degrees between long shots, medium shots and close-ups.

Dope Sheet:
Camera reports are also referred to by this term. Dope sheets specifically refer to the list of camera shots already taken or to be taken. The dope sheet is also a list of the contents of an exposed reel of film.

Double Take:
Comedic entertainers often look at an object, subject, scene or event, look away, and then, with a pronounced and emphatic return of the head, view the subject or situation as if it had not been seen on the first occasion or completely understood upon the first viewing: the proverbial "double take."

Dress Off:
A directorial instruction to advise the performer where they should be standing in reference to an object or other actress/actor.

Drift:
A gradual motion by a character in the process of moving off stage, out of view of the camera or out of another performer's path. Drift can also refer to a poor movement by a performer who walks slowly out of position thus destroying the continuity and composition of a particular shot or scene.

Dry Run:
Similar to a theatrical dress rehearsal, only in the movie industry it refers to the running of lines and action without the cameras rolling. Usually everyone is present including the camera crew and technical staff giving them an opportunity to understand the positions and timing required to capture the scene with minimal `miss-takes'.

Electronic Storyboard:
A story board is a rough sketch of the outline for a film production. It only deals with a portrayal of the narrative sequence of events. When the electronic medium was added the storyboard became capable of being committed to video tape or computer so that the data is easily accesible from a number of different places in the studio. Like the non-electronic storyboard, the electronic story board is used to maintain an assemblance of what has and has not been committed to film and the continuity of the filming process.

Establishing Shot:
At the beginning of a film, episode or scene within a film, a wide-angle or "full-shot" is photographed for the purpose of identifying the location or setting. Thus the audience has established, or been given the opportunity to surmise an orientation. It also helps to establish the distinctions between the general locale and the specific details -- from subsequent shots -- within the general context.

 
Exposition:
Most often the beginning of any narrative event, particularly the aspect of the film that "sets" the story and informs the audience about the characters. A documentary exposition often acts in such a way that premises, facts, ideas, and arguments are completely provided for the audience.

External Rhythm:
The pace at which a film moves. Rhythms are sometimes the signature of a director and include her/his cutting, filming, angling and panning procedures. These effective devices lend themselves to the tempo of the product as it is viewed by the public and can achieve quick and unnerving effects or slow, gloomy perceptions by the audience. When rhythms are purposefully out of sync with what is presently described as "real time," the "external rhythm" (real time) and the "rhythm of the film" (artificial or asynchronous time) can be quite unsettling to the audience.

 
Eye Contact:
Eye contact can have various nuances but direct eye contact occurs when a performer looks immediately at the camera.

Favoring:
When an actress or actor is instructed to face the camera more directly than any of the other performers the shot is said to be "favoring" that person. This can also be used to enhance two or more players in a group thus "favoring" a small ensemble.

Fifty-Fifty:
A filmed image in which two characters are talking and neither performer is given prominence. They share the "spot" equally

Flashback:
The chronology of a screen play can be interrupted and discontinuous with this useful narrative device. In the processing of a motion picture scenes can be presented in such a way as to return to previous events in the character's experience by utilizing a scene that represents such an occasion. The events occurred before the main action now taking place with the intent of providing the audience with background information. The flashback device can be as extensive or minimal as needed to convey the story. Almost the entire film of "Citizen Kane" takes place in a reminiscent manner concerning Kane's effect on people and their memories of him.

Flashforward:
The opposite of flashback. In this case a scene is taken out of sequence to future events that might happen, will happen or are imagined to happen. Science-fiction genres find this effect quite useful particularly when dealing with concepts of time, hopes and dreams. "Star Trek: The Generations" was synthesized through a series of flashforward possibilities in the television series "Star Trek," "Star Trek the Next Generation," "Star Trek: Deep Space Nine" as well as in the "Star Trek" movie series.

Gag:
Gags refer to bits in comedy and, in essence, refer to a similar phenomenon in special effects jargon. A "gag" or bit of trickery is any device, moment, stunt or mechanism used to provide an illusory effect. Smoke machines, matte paintings, burning buildings, crashing cars, and quaking earth are all forms of "gags".

Grease Paint:
The colloquial term used for make-up employed by actresses and actors for film or stage. Formerly it was regarded as stage make-up for the purpose of over-accentuating eyes, cheeks and other important facial characteristics. The consistency of the make-up is often quite greasy to the touch and difficult to remove; hence its name.

Guiding Shot:
This terminological reference was coined by Eisenstein who built many of his scenes around a central image or series of images. The cohesive sequences were referred to as guiding shots for all of the anteceding shots were lead by or focused around these specific frames.

Hand Cue:
A direction given to the performer by the director. This particular cue takes the form of an hand gesture.

Hit the Mark:
A directive to an actress or actor to move to a previously designated spot (the mark) on the floor. Specific shots are achieved through this direction particularly regarding the camera angle and view from which the performer is photographed. (Analogously one can easily discern such a "mark" on the set of the "Tonight Show." It is the star which seems to be on the middle of the stage where the host, presently Jay Leno, stands during the monologue.)

Improvise:
Impromptu acting. A technique for allowing performers to access their own creativity and give them an allowance for making up their own lines. Without a script in hand or rehearsal of any kind, a dry-run so to speak, the improvisation of performers often lends itself to spontaneity and and into their own feelings for a more responsive scene.

In Camera:
That portion of the set that is contained within the field of view of the camera lens at any given moment. Early in the days of special effects his was a technique used for double-imaging. One half of the field of the camera would be blocked off and the image of the subject photographed. After this was accomplished and the film was rewound, the opposite side of the camera's vision (field) would be blocked while the cameraperson shot the subject positioned on the other side. That which was being photographed was "In Camera." Technically the result would be the image of a performer talking with her/his twin. (See "field of view".)

Kill:
An imperative often offered by a director, the command "kill" simply means to turn something off.

 
Line:
Any scripted sentence, phrase, single word or group of words that is delivered by a performer in film, televison, radio or on the stage.

Live-Action :
Actions, events and situations in a film that take place between living subjects and not animated figures of any kind.

Macguffin:
Also referred to as "weenie" MacGuffin was coined by Alfred Hitchcock to refer to any situation in the unfolding of a story that motivates the action of a film, whether artificially or substantively. Such a motivational device may take the form of a stolen map or secret papers. The plot will usually thicken for the characters while the audience remains unimpressed.

Method Acting:
Theoretically a realistic manner in which actresses and actors can prepare themselves for a specific role. The technique was founded by Konstantin Stanislavsky and advocated by the Actors Studio in New York City (1947). The performers discover within themselves experiences and events in their lives that correlate with the lives of the character they are enacting. The "method" calls for an extremely concentrated effort in which the performer must simultaneously remain in character, and, draw from their own situations so that they might fully realize the roll.

Mise-en-scene:
In essence a reply to advocates of montage, the proponents of "Mise-en-scene" understand, accentuate and celebrate the importance of the individual frame of film and what it contains. A psychological unity exists in a film from one frame to the next. There should not be a disruptive emphasis on the complete unity of each frame in and of itself without giving credence to the totality. It is similar to the concepts of continuity within the frame and its relation to the next and the discontinuity involved in complex montages where many images are presented on a single frame. (Also see "montage".)

Narration:
The telling of a story and the information supplied to the film audience by a voice coming from off screen who is not, usually, a character in the story. This type of narration is used in documentaries, educational films, and can be used to supplement a story-line. In some cases the narrative voice is that of one of the characters and the audience discovers her/his thoughts, reflections and ideas concerning past histories (filled-in-information), present occurrences, future hopes and aspirations. It is a useful tool for adding continuity to a film.

 
New Angle:
A direction used in the script or given by the director for the cameraperson to change the position of the camera during the filming of a subject. Shot diversity is the goal but the discretion remains with the director and not the cameraperson.

Obligatory Scene:
Given a particular genre, an obligatory scene is one that is expected by the audience relative to the genre. Love scenes in romances, shoot-outs in Westerns, the unraveling of a mystery in a detective film, and the rescue of a male or female protagonist in an adventure film are all examples of obligatory scenes. (Also see "cliche".)

Off camera:
Out of the boundaries of the camera's field of vision. Nevertheless, a performer's presence may be inferred from the context of the scene or their presence in dialogue.

Out of Character:
The description of a character who performs some action or says something that is not consistent with the established pattern of behavior. This phrase is also applied to performers who do not maintain the proper behavior, speech or accent of the character they are protraying. (Also see "In Character.")

Pace:
The tempo at which the story line of a film unfolds. The pace is effected by a number of different elements including action, the length of scenes, camera angles, color levels, editing, lighting, composition and sound. Aspects that can affect the pace of a film, that are exterior to the production itself, include cultural diversity and directorial character and nuance.

Parallel Action:
Aspects within the context of a story that are happening simultaneously with the primary performer's situation. The technique is employed in the editing process whereby the projected image goes back-and-forth between the primary and secondary scene. Those instances which are parallel may be related to one another in the sense that both frames of reference are going to meet in the "primary" forum. Shots may include a distant train coming down the tracks with a heroine/hero tied to the track and a hero/heroine riding to the rescue from the other distant direction. The train and the rescuer are in parallel with one another.

Passing Shot:
Resulting in a projected image that travels quickly across the screen, the passing shot is accomplished in one of two ways: the performer being filmed, walks by a stationary camera; the camera pans passed a stationary performer.

Photogenic:
Some people have a characteristic that affords the camera an attractive image. This characteristic (ability is a misnomer) provides a good image on the film medium; the person's image registers well.

Pickups:
Although coverage shots are supposed to `cover' any material that may have been left out of a particular scene, pickups are photographed after the entire regular schedule is in the can. The need arises as lacunae are occasionally discovered in the editing process and they must be filled in.

Point of View:
In film theory and application the view from which the audience sees the action. Most often this is done through the objective lens of the camera though the viewing subject can be informed by the perspective of a character in the film. In theatrical performances such information is given in an aside. Likewise, the character(s) can speak directly to the audience in a film. For example, Matthew Broderick speaks to the audience in "Ferris Bueller's Day Off" not only with poetic asides but specifically after the film and closing credits have rolled. He asks the viewing public, to paraphrase, "Are you still here?" "Why are you still here?" "Go on. . .go home." Shifts in perspective can occur from character to character which gives the audience different points of view. The point of view can also refer to the director's perrogatives in the making of a particular story. S/he may harbor some particular bias or political slant to given events. Recently, Oliver Stone has been criticized for his "point of view" in the content of his production of "J.F.K."

Polish:
The final scripted editions to a film text. This is not a general re-write but the last step or stage in the final analysis of the script.

Prompter:
A device, mechanism or camera attachment that aids a performer or speech-giver with the content of their lines. It has taken many forms and has included the simple cue card, scrolling cues depicted on a CRT (television screen) under the cameras lens, and projected scripts onto prompt screens of various designs.

 
Reaction Shot:
A specific type of close-up in which the actress, actor or group of people is responding to an event. The shot is supposed to convey the impact of the moment and is often accomplished with a cutaway from the primary action to someone viewing the occurrence.

Read-through:
One of the earliest forms of collective rehearsal on a film set. The cast is gathered around a table, or other conventional setting, as they read the text of the script together while each actress and actor reads their respective parts. When a particular role has not been cast someone else will read the part until the performer has been chosen. Everyone becomes familiar with the story-line as well as their colleagues in the film. Directorial discussions begin at this point.

Reestablishing Shot:
A reestablishing shot often appears at the end of a sequence of events, the end of a scene, or, the beginning of a scene. The intention of the reestablishing shot indicates the location, which had heretofore been cognized by the audience in the establishing shot, so as to remind the viewer of the setting/location. (See "establishing shot".)

Retake:
To re-shoot a previously recorded shot usually because of some error or unsatisfactory situation. Retakes occur because of poor camera work, lighting, acting, or, simply because the director sees the shot in the context of a new vision (i.e., poetic license and directorial discretion).

Roll 'em!" (Also "Roll it!") :
The proverbial words of the assistant director (mistakenly thought to be the words of the director) as a prompt to the cameraman to put the camera in motion. Often followed by the command "Action!" -- given by the director -- as a prompt to the actresses and actors to begin the scene.

Run-Through:
Comparable to a theatrical dress rehearsal in which the performers speak their lines and the entire technical crew, particularly the camera and lighting persons, will be present for location cues and movements. No shooting is supposed to take place during the run-through.

Screenplay:
Open to multiple interpretations and rewrites the screenplay is the basic text with which a film is produced. The screenplay is often dependent upon a book, play, novel, short story, non-fictional human event or original `creations' by a screen writer. Most often screenplays are adaptations of other works. An initial text of a screenplay does not make it to the theatre unscathed by editorial intervention.

Screen Test:
Actresses and actors often make auditions for films before the camera. The screen test is such an event usually structured for a specific role in a specific film production.

Scrub:
A directorial command informing the crew to take down or remove a set or prop. The term can also be used to stop any type of activity no longer required or wanted on the set as in the military analogy, "scrubbing" a mission.

Selsyn Motor:
An abbreviated form for the self-synchronizing motor which has the ability to run two different film-related recording machines at the same time. Specifically, this motor runs audio and video recordings at the same time for the purpose of maintaining a perfect consistency between the two while the shot of a scene is being photographed.

Set:
The set is the illusory environment where the action of the film occurs. Sets are built in order to convey the time n place related to the specific series of narrative related events. Sets range from backdrop paintings to detailed constructions of medieval castles or Western towns. Usually a set is comprised of facades although many studios maintain, operate and own "canned" facilities for redundant locales. A related concept is stock footage only permanent sets are on a larger scale; one is canned film while the other is a permanent construction.

Shoot:
The process of filming any aspect of a motion picture, for the production of an entire film, with a motion picture camera.

Shooting Call:
Directions indicating the personnel required for tomorrow's filming schedule. The shooting call is often posted in the studio or on the location of today's filming.

 
Shooting Schedule:
Because scenes are often filmed out of sequence and out of a continuous line of progression, daily schedules must be planned. The shooting schedule contains the locations, times, equipment and personnel required for a day's shoot. The schedule itself may be compiled for a single day but is usually planned ahead for a number of days if not a week.

Shooting Script:
The final script for the production of a motion picture that is followed by the director in the production of the film. It contains dialogue, action cues, the breakdown of the scenes and requisite shots as well as a chronological order "in toto". The daily shooting schedules are significantly determined by the shooting script.

Space:
Film is a combination of the spatial and temporal arts. Architecture primarily contends with the enfolding of space and music the temporality of successive moments. Film deals with the temporality of music and two of the three dimensions of architecture. The film medium can bend, shape, manipulate, control, and even restructure these two interactive and interdependent dimensions so that the audience can view the artistic endeavors, remain separate from the distinct imaged planes and yet be effected by the medium. Contingent upon the film genre and theoretical aspects employed film arranges lines, colors, shapes, masses and relationships so as to manufacture aesthetically pleasing images and situations while erecting psychological gestalts within the added dimensionality of character. Much of this is accomplished through the technologies of special effects, camera angles, lighting and sound so that the viewer can see two dimensional images from numerous perspectives and different angled realities.

Stay With the Money:
A shot that will yield great box-office appeal. Generally a command is given by the director to "stay with the money" concerning a specific event in an individual's performance, or, an event in the film while camera are rolling.

Story-board:
In the process of planning a film the narrative is often depicted scene by scene with requisite materials and technicians that will be needed for the shoot. Story-boards are an overall, general depiction of the entire film sequence. The same application is used in animation processes.

Subjective Camera:
A camera shot or film style that provides the audience with the specific vision or perspective of a character in the film or the point of view of the film's author.

 
Tag:
The final scene in a motion picture. The "tag" appears after the climactic events(s) and is used tie together all the loose ends of the story (if that is the aim and intent of the producer). The tag is the denouement of the film. (See "denouement".)

Text:
The text of a film is not simply the script, as it would be comparably in literature. A text is a composite entity consisting of the relationships developed between the language, lighting, acting, images, shots, editing, sound, properties and settings.

Three-Camera Technique:
Shooting or filming a scene with the use of three cameras set at different angles or different distances. This gives the editor and director numerous shot choices in the compilation process and generally allows for less time and fewer retakes than the one camera technique. The three camera technique, unfortunately is quite expensive with its requisite greater quantity of film, crew members and cameras.

Timing:
The pace or rhythm of a film which is usually contingent upon the direction, artistic ability and discretion of the director. Timing also refers to developmental procedures in achieving proper color textures and hues in the finished film product.

Typecasting:
Generally the "stereotype" of acting. When a performer is mistakenly given similar character roles and her/his performances and career become shaped by that particular character. Examples abound including Western side-kicks like Slim Pickens and Dub Taylor or gangster types like Edward G. Robinson -- though the later played other roles as well. This is often unfair to actresses and actors who would like to stretch their own performing techniques but who can not obtain a role different from the character "type" with whom people associate them.

Upstage:
Walking in front of the star on stage or during a filming shoot, or, to unduly detract the audience's attention away from the star. Upstage is also a direction indicating the rear portion of the stage or set.

Vignette:
A well constructed scene in such an highly artistic fashion that this segment of a motion picture could stand on its own. An example is the "Tara" scene from "Gone With the Wind" in which Scarlette O'hara declares "I will never go hungry again!" Not only will the portrayal by the actress or actor be singular, so too will the cinematographic recording of the event. Vignette also refers to a photograph that appears to fade at the edges with no distinct perimeter.

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