When a person pretends to be a character
in a screenplay, theatrical production or film and interprets
the role as they best see fit they are said to be acting. Within
the process of film acting a person's inabilities may be masked
by the editing process so that the effective communication to
the audience is not direct as in stage or theatrical acting.
Action is any movement that takes place
before the camera including, but not limited to, the exchange
between actors and actresses in the course of a developing narrative
and the settings in which the characters they are portraying
find themselves. |
The Greek term "morphic" denotes form
or shape. "Ana," in this case, implies "new." An anamorphic
lens "shapes anew" a particular image. Both the camera and projector
must use the anamorphic lens because when the image is photographed
the horizontal axis "alone" of the image is condensed so that
the scene can pass through the lens and make its image on the
comparatively narrow width of the film. (Outside of the industry
an anamorphic lens affects both the horizontal and vertical
image.) The projector, accordingly, expands the horizontal axis
so that when it is depicted on the screen the normal image appears.
of View :
This term primarily refers to the horizontal
axis of a particular image. When an image is photographed the
opening of the camera lens is circular in actuality. However,
the aperture is structured in such a way as to provide a rectangular
frame that structures the image for viewing and later projection.
The horizontal axis is dependent upon the angle of the lens.
Wide angles provide an overview of approximately forty three
degrees while a `normal' angled lens provides an "angle of view"
that approximates twenty five degrees.
This procedure was developed in the United
States to facilitate animation. Actors are photographed in a
manner that enhances their silhouette and diminishes their specific
characteristics. They are photographed against a black background
and later these images are combined with painted matte backgrounds.
Animation cameras were specifically designed
for photographing frame-by-frame through stop-action lenses
thus allowing the camera to capture fractions of movements.
The camera is mounted on animation stands so that the media
being filmed can be framed in a consistent and sequential manner.
An effectual device used to emphasize
a particular thing that is about to happen. This is often accomplished
with a pause in the actions of a character. An example from
animation would include the momentary halt in "Wiley Coyote's"
pursuit of the "Roadrunner" when one of his "captivating" devices
has been foiled again. He waits, is depicted as looking at the
audience with a knowing and pained expression on his face, and
then the anvil falls upon his head.
A simple photographic procedure in which
the subject being photographed is circled by the camera.
The basic "tryout" or test for a specific
role in the stage and film genres. Musical scores and songs
are also often "auditioned" for both theatrical productions
and film productions.
If problematic events interrupt the primary
filming schedule -- such as rain on location when not called
for in the script -- the back-up schedule is followed instead.
In the process of setting-up a scene,
a rehearsal takes place in very general terms so that the production
crew and the artistic individuals such as the directors, camerapersons,
actresses and actors, can effectively construct the scene for
filming. A brief composite of the display occurs during blocking.
A mistake made by a performer during filming.
Bloopers specifically refer to misplaced or misspoken dialogue
by the individual usually resulting in an humorous or embarrassing
In the production of films a scenario
of the entirety must be worked out in advance of production.
A breakdown or breakdown script is a proverbial laundry list
of everything needed for the production of the particular film
and what is needed for each scene on a day-by-day basis. One
of the problems that is alleviated when the breakdown is thorough
and precise is continuity. If a scene is filmed from one day
to the next the breakdown list provides the information as to
what was used in the previous days' shooting. Inclusive in the
breakdown are props, lights, extras, cameras, positions and
Action increases, the pace and intensity
of the film narrative drive forth, and the music crescendos.
. .this lead-in or buildup culminates with a dramatically central
scene in the scope and content of the story line.
This term is applied to any movement or
gesture by an actress or actor in the process of adding character
to a role and fulfilling their interpretation. "Giving them
the business" is a Hollywood colloquialism that refers to such
devices, when the intent is to convey the attitude of a character
and deceive the person to whom the `business' (gesture, interpretation,
characterization) is directed; fooling someone with a false
appearance. Also the secondary or background action in any given
When a star is not billed in a film but
makes a special appearance at the request of the producer or
director for a brief moment or comment. Prime examples include
Alfred Hitchcock's "cameo" appearances in some of his films
most often at the beginning (man on the street appearances).
It was an interesting device often used to increase box-office
potentials. Bing Crosby made a brief and unexpected appearance
in a movie starring Bob Hope (perhaps to catch the audiences
familiar with their road movies). A particularly "Brooksian"
cameo occurred when Marcel Marceau appeared in Mel Brooks' "Silent
Movie" delivering the only spoken line throughout the film,
Prompting System :
A fanciful form of cue cards for performers.
The Camera Prompting System is, attached to the camera, structured
in the form of a scrolling device, can be run by remote control,
and, in respect to the camera lens, is angled at forty five
degrees. Performers can read their lines and play to the camera
This is an itinerary of what the camera
has shot, what it is supposed to shoot, how many feet have been
taken, what is on a particular exposure taken from a specific
camera, the number of takes and general and specific comments
as well as selections regarding the day's shoot. The assistant
cameraman is responsible for the camera report. (See Assistant
An aspect of the fiction and reality of
Hollywood during the so called Golden Age, this piece of furniture
was present in a director's or producer's office. Starlets purportedly
obtained their roles in motion pictures by granting sexual favors,
to the director or producer, enacted on the couch. This, of
course, does not imply that only "starlets" received such casting
Specific editions of aspects of the script
come out on a daily basis during the process of shooting a film.
As an alteration occurs the changes are made on "pages" of different
colors indicating the particular stage of the rewrite.
When directors rearrange the positions
of actors and actresses on the set to provide a different angle
or a close-up shot a "cheat" occurs. This provides a perspective
that could not otherwise be achieved with camera angles and
camera movement. Problems can arise, however, if an audience
member checks for consistency in positions of performers. That
is why great care must be taken when the cheat is implemented.
The organization and sequencing of dance
movements and sequences in the content of a film or stage production.
Choreography also refers to the art of directing movements of
any kind during a physical, performing art. Film, opera, television,
and stage productions all include choreography.
This term denotes the photographing of
tiny objects. The process is particularly useful as a special
effects device in the making of science fiction films or medical
films. Microcinematography has been employed in scientific research
and includes such fields as photomicography -- the use of an
apparatus to attach a camera directly to a microscope for photographing
A wide-screen filming process that first
used three cameras and three projectors to achieve an encompassing
view of the subject matter. The cameras were positioned conjointly
so as to record data in breadth with one camera facing straight
ahead and the other two cameras filming in coordinates of camera-right
and camera-left. The full angle achieved was one hundred and
sixty five degrees and the films were melded-together or combined
in such a way as to produce an effectual illusion of spaciousness.
The method was employed in the travelogue "This is Cinerama,"
(1952) to introduce the technique to the viewing public and
in the feature presentation "How the West Was Won" (1962).
In the process of filming a scene containing
dialogue, actors make mistakes in delivering their lines. When
this does not occur the faultless dialogue take is referred
to as "clean speech".
Taking the perspective of an omniscient
poet the commentator does not appear on film. S/he gives an
objective opinion or description of characters or events either
occurring in the film or to fill in information without wasting
a great deal of film time. The commentator's voice comes from
off-camera and is edited to the soundtrack of the film through
the voice-over process.
Composition entails the complete arrangement
of a scene. The process includes camera angles, lighting, properties,
characters, and the movement of the characters. Various forms
of composition are all in the hands of the director. These proceedings
not only give the audience the perspective, content and context
that they will experience but composition often demonstratively
indicates a directorial signature.
In the story-line of a film, performing
art or literature, the struggle that arises between two in opposition.
The conflicts can arise between a single individual and their
self, one individual and another, one person and a group, two
groups, or two forces. Several of these conflicts can appear
in the content of the same film as in Robert Redford's "Ordinary
In film productions contending with studied
issues, biographical events or nonfiction stories based on actual
events, people are brought on the set to add clarity, substance
and veracity to the story-line. The individuals who are experts
in the field being addressed, the biographers of individuals
being depicted in the film, or the people who actually experienced
the events are credited as consultants or advisers. Their insights
into the quality and character of the subject matter, or, their
overview of the corpus of the film, is referred to as consulting
Most film viewers are aware that various
scenes in motion pictures are filmed out of sequence. The continuity
of a film refers to the sequential development and consistency
of the story-line and images. If for example a scene requires
numerous takes shot on different days the continuity or integrity
of the story (scene) must be maintained. If a performer is wearing
a specific piece of apparel in the course of one day's shooting
of a scene, and the next day requires close-ups or images and
actions from the same scene and the apparel changes, the continuity
of the scene has been corrupted.
A shot, image, scene or depiction of a
large group of people. Extras often constitute the corpus of
the "crowd shot".
Any sign from the director, script or
performance of another character that indicates the next requisite
movement, action, or dialogue of an individual performer. Cued
individuals may be performers or technicians as the indicated
action includes camera positionings, lighting requirements and
movements of booms or other production devices.
the meantime," or, "Meanwhile, back at the ranch," are phrases
indicative of a cutaway. These shots are often taken in coverage
footage and provide a transition or "cut" image for the editor.
They can include stock footage as well and are added at the
end of a scene to give a momentary pause. The "poetic" pause
is used so that in the transition from one scene to the next,
there is not a sudden jump (although this technique is used
on occasion as well). If, for example, action is taking place
in a Western, and the scene switches from the town to the ranch
where our heroine is compromised, a "cut" of the ranch is used
to go from the town to the heroine. Waves lapping on the beach
after a romantic love-scene is often used as a "cut" image providing
a transition from the "love scene" to another sequence of events.
A specific type of comedic device in which
the performer assumes an expressionless (deadpan) quality to
her/his face demonstrating absolutely no emotion or feeling.
This was a trademark of Buster Keaton's comedic form.
Production processes include the building
of miniature models of the set which is going to be used in
a film. The miniature model is referred to as a diorama.
Directing is the art of arranging all
the action being filmed during the production of a movie and
making certain that the action and the spoken word relates to
the content and context of the screenplay. With few exceptions,
all personnel on a film stage answer to the director. Her/his
guidance meld all of the aspects of filmmmaking -- sound, light
and action -- into a uniform whole. This process has not changed
significantly since the advent of feature films in 1915.
The content of a film or dialogue script
often contains statements which are set off from the main dialogue
by parentheses, dashes, brackets, et cetera. These statements
often instruct the performer how to move, react or gesture thus
providing her/him with "directions" to accompany the dialogue.
"Direction" also refers to the instructions that a director
gives to her or his actresses and actors as well as the technicians
involved in filming a scene.
Distance refers to the amount of relational
space between the audience and the character on the screen.
Though the characters are two-dimensional and the audience is
distinctly separate from the screen by dead space (virtual reality
in the theatre has not yet been developed) the camera's perspective,
in effect, attempts to provide the amount of space desired subject
to the director's discretion. This space often results in the
interaction and psychological connection between the characters
and the audience. The connection is achieved through the dynamics
and varying degrees between long shots, medium shots and close-ups.
Camera reports are also referred to by
this term. Dope sheets specifically refer to the list of camera
shots already taken or to be taken. The dope sheet is also a
list of the contents of an exposed reel of film.
Comedic entertainers often look at an
object, subject, scene or event, look away, and then, with a
pronounced and emphatic return of the head, view the subject
or situation as if it had not been seen on the first occasion
or completely understood upon the first viewing: the proverbial
A directorial instruction to advise the
performer where they should be standing in reference to an object
or other actress/actor.
A gradual motion by a character in the
process of moving off stage, out of view of the camera or out
of another performer's path. Drift can also refer to a poor
movement by a performer who walks slowly out of position thus
destroying the continuity and composition of a particular shot
Similar to a theatrical dress rehearsal,
only in the movie industry it refers to the running of lines
and action without the cameras rolling. Usually everyone is
present including the camera crew and technical staff giving
them an opportunity to understand the positions and timing required
to capture the scene with minimal `miss-takes'.
A story board is a rough sketch of the
outline for a film production. It only deals with a portrayal
of the narrative sequence of events. When the electronic medium
was added the storyboard became capable of being committed to
video tape or computer so that the data is easily accesible
from a number of different places in the studio. Like the non-electronic
storyboard, the electronic story board is used to maintain an
assemblance of what has and has not been committed to film and
the continuity of the filming process.
At the beginning of a film, episode or
scene within a film, a wide-angle or "full-shot" is photographed
for the purpose of identifying the location or setting. Thus
the audience has established, or been given the opportunity
to surmise an orientation. It also helps to establish the distinctions
between the general locale and the specific details -- from
subsequent shots -- within the general context.
Most often the beginning of any narrative
event, particularly the aspect of the film that "sets" the story
and informs the audience about the characters. A documentary
exposition often acts in such a way that premises, facts, ideas,
and arguments are completely provided for the audience.
The pace at which a film moves. Rhythms
are sometimes the signature of a director and include her/his
cutting, filming, angling and panning procedures. These effective
devices lend themselves to the tempo of the product as it is
viewed by the public and can achieve quick and unnerving effects
or slow, gloomy perceptions by the audience. When rhythms are
purposefully out of sync with what is presently described as
"real time," the "external rhythm" (real time) and the "rhythm
of the film" (artificial or asynchronous time) can be quite
unsettling to the audience.
Eye contact can have various nuances but
direct eye contact occurs when a performer looks immediately
at the camera.
When an actress or actor is instructed
to face the camera more directly than any of the other performers
the shot is said to be "favoring" that person. This can also
be used to enhance two or more players in a group thus "favoring"
a small ensemble.
A filmed image in which two characters
are talking and neither performer is given prominence. They
share the "spot" equally
The chronology of a screen play can be
interrupted and discontinuous with this useful narrative device.
In the processing of a motion picture scenes can be presented
in such a way as to return to previous events in the character's
experience by utilizing a scene that represents such an occasion.
The events occurred before the main action now taking place
with the intent of providing the audience with background information.
The flashback device can be as extensive or minimal as needed
to convey the story. Almost the entire film of "Citizen Kane"
takes place in a reminiscent manner concerning Kane's effect
on people and their memories of him.
The opposite of flashback. In this case
a scene is taken out of sequence to future events that might
happen, will happen or are imagined to happen. Science-fiction
genres find this effect quite useful particularly when dealing
with concepts of time, hopes and dreams. "Star Trek: The Generations"
was synthesized through a series of flashforward possibilities
in the television series "Star Trek," "Star Trek the Next Generation,"
"Star Trek: Deep Space Nine" as well as in the "Star Trek" movie
Gags refer to bits in comedy and, in essence,
refer to a similar phenomenon in special effects jargon. A "gag"
or bit of trickery is any device, moment, stunt or mechanism
used to provide an illusory effect. Smoke machines, matte paintings,
burning buildings, crashing cars, and quaking earth are all
forms of "gags".
The colloquial term used for make-up employed
by actresses and actors for film or stage. Formerly it was regarded
as stage make-up for the purpose of over-accentuating eyes,
cheeks and other important facial characteristics. The consistency
of the make-up is often quite greasy to the touch and difficult
to remove; hence its name.
This terminological reference was coined
by Eisenstein who built many of his scenes around a central
image or series of images. The cohesive sequences were referred
to as guiding shots for all of the anteceding shots were lead
by or focused around these specific frames.
A direction given to the performer by
the director. This particular cue takes the form of an hand
A directive to an actress or actor to
move to a previously designated spot (the mark) on the floor.
Specific shots are achieved through this direction particularly
regarding the camera angle and view from which the performer
is photographed. (Analogously one can easily discern such a
"mark" on the set of the "Tonight Show." It is the star which
seems to be on the middle of the stage where the host, presently
Jay Leno, stands during the monologue.)
Impromptu acting. A technique for allowing
performers to access their own creativity and give them an allowance
for making up their own lines. Without a script in hand or rehearsal
of any kind, a dry-run so to speak, the improvisation of performers
often lends itself to spontaneity and and into their own feelings
for a more responsive scene.
That portion of the set that is contained
within the field of view of the camera lens at any given moment.
Early in the days of special effects his was a technique used
for double-imaging. One half of the field of the camera would
be blocked off and the image of the subject photographed. After
this was accomplished and the film was rewound, the opposite
side of the camera's vision (field) would be blocked while the
cameraperson shot the subject positioned on the other side.
That which was being photographed was "In Camera." Technically
the result would be the image of a performer talking with her/his
twin. (See "field of view".)
An imperative often offered by a director,
the command "kill" simply means to turn something off.
Any scripted sentence, phrase, single
word or group of words that is delivered by a performer in film,
televison, radio or on the stage.
Actions, events and situations in a film
that take place between living subjects and not animated figures
of any kind.
Also referred to as "weenie" MacGuffin
was coined by Alfred Hitchcock to refer to any situation in
the unfolding of a story that motivates the action of a film,
whether artificially or substantively. Such a motivational device
may take the form of a stolen map or secret papers. The plot
will usually thicken for the characters while the audience remains
Theoretically a realistic manner in which
actresses and actors can prepare themselves for a specific role.
The technique was founded by Konstantin Stanislavsky and advocated
by the Actors Studio in New York City (1947). The performers
discover within themselves experiences and events in their lives
that correlate with the lives of the character they are enacting.
The "method" calls for an extremely concentrated effort in which
the performer must simultaneously remain in character, and,
draw from their own situations so that they might fully realize
In essence a reply to advocates of montage,
the proponents of "Mise-en-scene" understand, accentuate and
celebrate the importance of the individual frame of film and
what it contains. A psychological unity exists in a film from
one frame to the next. There should not be a disruptive emphasis
on the complete unity of each frame in and of itself without
giving credence to the totality. It is similar to the concepts
of continuity within the frame and its relation to the next
and the discontinuity involved in complex montages where many
images are presented on a single frame. (Also see "montage".)
The telling of a story and the information
supplied to the film audience by a voice coming from off screen
who is not, usually, a character in the story. This type of
narration is used in documentaries, educational films, and can
be used to supplement a story-line. In some cases the narrative
voice is that of one of the characters and the audience discovers
her/his thoughts, reflections and ideas concerning past histories
(filled-in-information), present occurrences, future hopes and
aspirations. It is a useful tool for adding continuity to a
A direction used in the script or given
by the director for the cameraperson to change the position
of the camera during the filming of a subject. Shot diversity
is the goal but the discretion remains with the director and
not the cameraperson.
Given a particular genre, an obligatory
scene is one that is expected by the audience relative to the
genre. Love scenes in romances, shoot-outs in Westerns, the
unraveling of a mystery in a detective film, and the rescue
of a male or female protagonist in an adventure film are all
examples of obligatory scenes. (Also see "cliche".)
Out of the boundaries of the camera's
field of vision. Nevertheless, a performer's presence may be
inferred from the context of the scene or their presence in
The description of a character who performs
some action or says something that is not consistent with the
established pattern of behavior. This phrase is also applied
to performers who do not maintain the proper behavior, speech
or accent of the character they are protraying. (Also see "In
The tempo at which the story line of a
film unfolds. The pace is effected by a number of different
elements including action, the length of scenes, camera angles,
color levels, editing, lighting, composition and sound. Aspects
that can affect the pace of a film, that are exterior to the
production itself, include cultural diversity and directorial
character and nuance.
Aspects within the context of a story
that are happening simultaneously with the primary performer's
situation. The technique is employed in the editing process
whereby the projected image goes back-and-forth between the
primary and secondary scene. Those instances which are parallel
may be related to one another in the sense that both frames
of reference are going to meet in the "primary" forum. Shots
may include a distant train coming down the tracks with a heroine/hero
tied to the track and a hero/heroine riding to the rescue from
the other distant direction. The train and the rescuer are in
parallel with one another.
Resulting in a projected image that travels
quickly across the screen, the passing shot is accomplished
in one of two ways: the performer being filmed, walks by a stationary
camera; the camera pans passed a stationary performer.
Some people have a characteristic that
affords the camera an attractive image. This characteristic
(ability is a misnomer) provides a good image on the film medium;
the person's image registers well.
Although coverage shots are supposed to
`cover' any material that may have been left out of a particular
scene, pickups are photographed after the entire regular schedule
is in the can. The need arises as lacunae are occasionally discovered
in the editing process and they must be filled in.
In film theory and application the view
from which the audience sees the action. Most often this is
done through the objective lens of the camera though the viewing
subject can be informed by the perspective of a character in
the film. In theatrical performances such information is given
in an aside. Likewise, the character(s) can speak directly to
the audience in a film. For example, Matthew Broderick speaks
to the audience in "Ferris Bueller's Day Off" not only with
poetic asides but specifically after the film and closing credits
have rolled. He asks the viewing public, to paraphrase, "Are
you still here?" "Why are you still here?" "Go on. . .go home."
Shifts in perspective can occur from character to character
which gives the audience different points of view. The point
of view can also refer to the director's perrogatives in the
making of a particular story. S/he may harbor some particular
bias or political slant to given events. Recently, Oliver Stone
has been criticized for his "point of view" in the content of
his production of "J.F.K."
The final scripted editions to a film
text. This is not a general re-write but the last step or stage
in the final analysis of the script.
A device, mechanism or camera attachment
that aids a performer or speech-giver with the content of their
lines. It has taken many forms and has included the simple cue
card, scrolling cues depicted on a CRT (television screen) under
the cameras lens, and projected scripts onto prompt screens
of various designs.
A specific type of close-up in which the
actress, actor or group of people is responding to an event.
The shot is supposed to convey the impact of the moment and
is often accomplished with a cutaway from the primary action
to someone viewing the occurrence.
One of the earliest forms of collective
rehearsal on a film set. The cast is gathered around a table,
or other conventional setting, as they read the text of the
script together while each actress and actor reads their respective
parts. When a particular role has not been cast someone else
will read the part until the performer has been chosen. Everyone
becomes familiar with the story-line as well as their colleagues
in the film. Directorial discussions begin at this point.
A reestablishing shot often appears at
the end of a sequence of events, the end of a scene, or, the
beginning of a scene. The intention of the reestablishing shot
indicates the location, which had heretofore been cognized by
the audience in the establishing shot, so as to remind the viewer
of the setting/location. (See "establishing shot".)
To re-shoot a previously recorded shot
usually because of some error or unsatisfactory situation. Retakes
occur because of poor camera work, lighting, acting, or, simply
because the director sees the shot in the context of a new vision
(i.e., poetic license and directorial discretion).
'em!" (Also "Roll it!") :
The proverbial words of the assistant
director (mistakenly thought to be the words of the director)
as a prompt to the cameraman to put the camera in motion. Often
followed by the command "Action!" -- given by the director --
as a prompt to the actresses and actors to begin the scene.
Comparable to a theatrical dress rehearsal
in which the performers speak their lines and the entire technical
crew, particularly the camera and lighting persons, will be
present for location cues and movements. No shooting is supposed
to take place during the run-through.
Open to multiple interpretations and rewrites
the screenplay is the basic text with which a film is produced.
The screenplay is often dependent upon a book, play, novel,
short story, non-fictional human event or original `creations'
by a screen writer. Most often screenplays are adaptations of
other works. An initial text of a screenplay does not make it
to the theatre unscathed by editorial intervention.
Actresses and actors often make auditions
for films before the camera. The screen test is such an event
usually structured for a specific role in a specific film production.
A directorial command informing the crew
to take down or remove a set or prop. The term can also be used
to stop any type of activity no longer required or wanted on
the set as in the military analogy, "scrubbing" a mission.
An abbreviated form for the self-synchronizing
motor which has the ability to run two different film-related
recording machines at the same time. Specifically, this motor
runs audio and video recordings at the same time for the purpose
of maintaining a perfect consistency between the two while the
shot of a scene is being photographed.
The set is the illusory environment where
the action of the film occurs. Sets are built in order to convey
the time n place related to the specific series of narrative
related events. Sets range from backdrop paintings to detailed
constructions of medieval castles or Western towns. Usually
a set is comprised of facades although many studios maintain,
operate and own "canned" facilities for redundant locales. A
related concept is stock footage only permanent sets are on
a larger scale; one is canned film while the other is a permanent
The process of filming any aspect of a
motion picture, for the production of an entire film, with a
motion picture camera.
Directions indicating the personnel required
for tomorrow's filming schedule. The shooting call is often
posted in the studio or on the location of today's filming.
Because scenes are often filmed out of
sequence and out of a continuous line of progression, daily
schedules must be planned. The shooting schedule contains the
locations, times, equipment and personnel required for a day's
shoot. The schedule itself may be compiled for a single day
but is usually planned ahead for a number of days if not a week.
The final script for the production of
a motion picture that is followed by the director in the production
of the film. It contains dialogue, action cues, the breakdown
of the scenes and requisite shots as well as a chronological
order "in toto". The daily shooting schedules are significantly
determined by the shooting script.
Film is a combination of the spatial and
temporal arts. Architecture primarily contends with the enfolding
of space and music the temporality of successive moments. Film
deals with the temporality of music and two of the three dimensions
of architecture. The film medium can bend, shape, manipulate,
control, and even restructure these two interactive and interdependent
dimensions so that the audience can view the artistic endeavors,
remain separate from the distinct imaged planes and yet be effected
by the medium. Contingent upon the film genre and theoretical
aspects employed film arranges lines, colors, shapes, masses
and relationships so as to manufacture aesthetically pleasing
images and situations while erecting psychological gestalts
within the added dimensionality of character. Much of this is
accomplished through the technologies of special effects, camera
angles, lighting and sound so that the viewer can see two dimensional
images from numerous perspectives and different angled realities.
With the Money:
A shot that will yield great box-office
appeal. Generally a command is given by the director to "stay
with the money" concerning a specific event in an individual's
performance, or, an event in the film while camera are rolling.
In the process of planning a film the
narrative is often depicted scene by scene with requisite materials
and technicians that will be needed for the shoot. Story-boards
are an overall, general depiction of the entire film sequence.
The same application is used in animation processes.
A camera shot or film style that provides
the audience with the specific vision or perspective of a character
in the film or the point of view of the film's author.
The final scene in a motion picture. The
"tag" appears after the climactic events(s) and is used tie
together all the loose ends of the story (if that is the aim
and intent of the producer). The tag is the denouement of the
film. (See "denouement".)
The text of a film is not simply the script,
as it would be comparably in literature. A text is a composite
entity consisting of the relationships developed between the
language, lighting, acting, images, shots, editing, sound, properties
Shooting or filming a scene with the use
of three cameras set at different angles or different distances.
This gives the editor and director numerous shot choices in
the compilation process and generally allows for less time and
fewer retakes than the one camera technique. The three camera
technique, unfortunately is quite expensive with its requisite
greater quantity of film, crew members and cameras.
The pace or rhythm of a film which is
usually contingent upon the direction, artistic ability and
discretion of the director. Timing also refers to developmental
procedures in achieving proper color textures and hues in the
finished film product.
Generally the "stereotype" of acting.
When a performer is mistakenly given similar character roles
and her/his performances and career become shaped by that particular
character. Examples abound including Western side-kicks like
Slim Pickens and Dub Taylor or gangster types like Edward G.
Robinson -- though the later played other roles as well. This
is often unfair to actresses and actors who would like to stretch
their own performing techniques but who can not obtain a role
different from the character "type" with whom people associate
Walking in front of the star on stage
or during a filming shoot, or, to unduly detract the audience's
attention away from the star. Upstage is also a direction indicating
the rear portion of the stage or set.
A well constructed scene in such an highly
artistic fashion that this segment of a motion picture could
stand on its own. An example is the "Tara" scene from "Gone
With the Wind" in which Scarlette O'hara declares "I will never
go hungry again!" Not only will the portrayal by the actress
or actor be singular, so too will the cinematographic recording
of the event. Vignette also refers to a photograph that appears
to fade at the edges with no distinct perimeter.