| GUJARATI LITERATURE
Padmanabh is the composer of Kanhadde, a historical
poem of epic dimensions. Padmanabh was a court poet
of Akheraj Chauhan, ruler of Jhalor in Rajasthan. The
poem is an eulogy of Kanhadde, the great grand father
of the master of the poet who fought for 12 years without
any respite against the Muslim invaders and became a
martyr. Kanhadde is the only poem in medieval Gujarati
literature which gives graphic descriptions of war and
heroism in an enchanting manner.
Mehta (1408-80): Mehta is generally acknowledged
as the father of Gujarati poetry. He wrote poetry of
Bhakti and Jnana and erotic mysticism and Advaita philosophy.
His principal works are Harsamenang Pado (Songs of the
Garlandtime), Prabhatiyaug (The Morning Hymns), Vaishnava
Jana to Tene Re Kahie (Him We May Very Well Call a Vaishnav).
Mehta continues to be the inspiring figure in Gujarati
(17th century): Akho,
a major poet of the medieval period in Gujarati literature
wrote in the tradition of the Bhakti movement. He was
a goldsmith by profession and the disciple of a saintly
figure of the times named Gokulnath. In the years 1645
and 1649 he composed two of his major works, namely
Panchikiran (Mixture of five elements) and Akhegita
(Gita by Akho). Among his other works are Chittavichar
Samvad (A Dialogue between Mind and Thought), Gurushishya
Samvad (A Dialogue between Teacher and a Pupil) and
Anubhav Bindu (A Drop of Experience). Besides being
a poet of great metaphysical experience, Akho displays
a strong streak of satire in his works.
won the title of Kavishwar (God of Poets) from the people
of Gujarat.. He is the author of the play Mithyabhiman
(False Pride). His poem Bipani Pinpar (Pipal Tree of
Fathers Time) is hailed as the first shot of modernity.
His poems are collected in the anthology Buddhiprakash.
His first play Laxmi is based on the Greek play Plutus.
(1833-'86): Narmad is known for inducting
Western literary forms and expressions in Gujarati literature..He
has been called the Arun (harbinger of Dawn) of modern
era. his Mari Hakikat (My Reality) is the first literature
in modern Gujarati literature.
Madhavram Tripathi (1855-1907): Considered
as the greatest novelist of Gujarati, Tripathi is also
a distinguished poet. His novel Sarasvatichandra occupies
an important place in the history of Indian literature.
An epic novel, its four parts were published as Buddhidhan-no-Karbhar
(The Administration of Buddhidhan), Gunasundari-nun-Kutumbajala
(The Family World of Gunasundari), Ratnanagari-no-Rajyakarbhara
(The Political Administration of Ratnanagari) and Sarasvati-nun-Manorajya
(The Fancy of the Goddess of Learning). The central
issue of the novel is essentially love and its evolution,
love which ultimately transends despair and tragic consciousness.
Kalelkar (1885-1981): Kalelkar is considered
as the master of prose in Gujarati. His forte was travelogue
and essays. Himalayano Pravas (A Pilgrimage to the Himilayas),
his magnum opus is a classic in Gujarati literature.
His other travelogues are Bhrahmdeshno Pravas (A Pilgrimage
to Burma), Purva Africaman (In the East Africa) and
Ugamano Desh (The Country of the Rising Sun). Jivanno
Anand (The Joy of Life) and Rakhadvano Anand (Wanderlust)
contain the best specimens of his essays.
Munshi (1887-1971): K.M Munshi was a litterateur
with a wide range of interests. He has enriched genres
like the novel, short story, biography, autobiography,etc.
He was the founder of the Bhartiya Vidya Bhavan. He
is specially known for his historical novels in Gujarati.
His trilogy Patanni Prabhuta (The Greatness of Patan),
Gujaratno Nath (The Ruler of Gujarat) and Rajadhiraj
(The Emperor) is considered significant in the literature
Parikh (1897-1982): A renowned Gujarati poet,
short story writer and literary critic Parikh came to
be known as a veteran scholar of Indian Culture, History
and Sanskrit Poetics. He founded a school of drama called
the Natya Vidya Mandir which gave rise to the famous
Nat Mandal.. His plays include Shivilak and Mena Gurjari
Dave (1903-'95): Harendra Dave was an outstanding
poet, fictionist and essayist of the post-Independence
period. His book Krishna Ane Manav Sambhando (Krishna
and Human Relations) is a monumental research work on
the Krishna theme. He was the recipient of Sahitiya
Academy Award, Ranjitram Gold Medal, Kabir Award of
the Madhya Pradesh Government, Gujarat Sahitya Parishad
and Goenka award for Journalism.
Joshi (1911-1988): Joshi is an eminent poet,
scholar and writer who received the Jnanpith Award in
1967 for his contribution to Indian literature.He is
also the winner of the Soviet Land Nehru Award and Ranajitram
Suvarna Chandrak. He was also the president of the National
Sahitya Academy for five years from 1978. His works
are Gangotri, Vishwashanti (World Peace), Nishith (The
God of Night), Mahaprashtan (Great Departure) Abhijna
(Recognition) and Satapada (Seven Poems)
Patel (1912-'89): A Jnanpith Award winner,
Pannabhai Patel is one of the foremost fictionists in
Gujarati. He has written more than 200 short stories
and about 50 novels among which include Manavini Bhavai
(Of Human Drama), Valamanan (The Send-off), Malela Jiv
(The United Souls), Bhangyanan Bheru (Companions in
Crisis), Pachhale Barane (From the Backdoor), Vatrakane
Kanthe (At the Shore of Vatrak).
Shah (1913): Rajendra Shah's first collection
of poems Dhwani (Cosmic Sound) came out with a bang
in 1951. He is known by his other literary works like
Andolan (Resonance), Sant Kolahal (Quiet Noise), Ksana
Je Cirantan (The Eternal Moment), Sankalit Kavita (Collected
Poems) and Aranyak (Forest-dweller).
Kumar Sharma (1934): Sharma received the
Sahitya Academy Award as well as the Gujarat Government
Award for Asuryalok (The World sans the Sun). A journalist
by profession, he started his literary career by writing
poems but switched over to novels, short stories and